Land Cover Classification for the Louisiana GAP Analysis Project

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Metadata:


Identification_Information:
Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Louisiana Gap Analysis Project, United States Geological Survey, Biological Research Division's, National Wetlands Research Center
Publication_Date: 19980101
Title:
Land Cover Classification for the Louisiana GAP Analysis Project
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: Digital Map
Description:
Abstract:
This data set consists of digital data describing the land use/land cover (mainly vegetation, but including water and urban environments) for the State of Louisiana at 1:100,000 scale. The map was compiled using Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper satellite imagery, botanical surveys, color infrared aerial photography, and existing coastal Louisiana habitat maps produced by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's National Wetlands Inventory. Attribute fields describe the different land cover types occurring within the polygon or associated with each pixel.
Purpose:
The intended use of this data set is to provide a land cover (mostly vegetation types) map for the further development of the Louisiana GAP Project. This data will provide information on the geographic distribution of land use /land cover for Louisiana. This data will also provide a variable for the purposes of mapping species habitat and can also be used for a variety of coarse scale landscape analysis/management purposes pertaining to land cover. The Louisiana GAP Project is significant because it (1) involves many more agencies and organizations than most resource management efforts; (2) addresses statewide questions to provide context for more site-specific decisions; (3) blends area research and practical applications; (4) connects national resource efforts while accommodating local needs.
Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 19921129
Ending_Date: 19930307
Currentness_Reference: Dates vary with the Thematic Mapper Satellite Imagery (TM)
Status:
Progress: Complete
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency:
No current plans for updating the land use/land cover data, however, the National Gap Program has indicated a possible 10 year interval for updating the information.
Spatial_Domain:
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate: -94.054
East_Bounding_Coordinate: -88.619
North_Bounding_Coordinate: 33.020
South_Bounding_Coordinate: 28.836
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: None
Theme_Keyword: Habitat
Theme_Keyword: Mapping
Theme_Keyword: Vegetation
Theme_Keyword: Land Cover
Theme_Keyword: Land Use
Theme_Keyword: Gap
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: None
Place_Keyword: Louisiana
Temporal:
Temporal_Keyword_Thesaurus: None
Temporal_Keyword: 1992-93
Access_Constraints:
NWRC Standard Data Liability Disclaimer (April 1997): Although these data have been processed successfully on a computer system at the National Wetlands Research Center, no warranty expressed or implied is made regarding the accuracy or utility of the data on any other system or for general or scientific purposes, nor shall the act of distribution constitute any such warranty. This disclaimer applies both to individual use of the data and aggregate use with other data. It is strongly recommended that these data are directly acquired from a Biological Resource Division server, and not indirectly through other sources which may have changed the data in some way. It is also strongly recommended that careful attention be paid to the contents of the metadata file associated with these data. NWRC shall not be held liable for improper or incorrect use of the data described and/or contained herein. So, these data are provided "as is" and without any express or implied warranties, including, without limitation, the implied warranties or merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose. Also, use of trade names or commercial products in this metadata is solely for the purpose of providing specific information, and does not imply recommendation or endorsement by the US Government. Any downloading and use of these data signifies a user's agreement to comprehension and compliance of the NWRC Standard Disclaimer. Insure all portions of metadata are read and clearly understood before using these data in order to protect both user and NWRC interests. See Distribution Liability section for more information.
Use_Constraints:
Acknowledgment of the National Wetlands Research Center as a data source would be appreciated in products developed from these data, and such acknowledgment as is standard for citation and legal practices for data source is expected by users of this data. Sharing new data layers developed directly from these data would also be appreciated by NWRC staff. The data set was produced with the intention of application at the state or ecoregion level geographic areas. The data provide a course-filter approach to analyses, therefore not every occurrence of animal or plant habitat is mapped, only large, generalized distributions are mapped, based on the USGS 1:100,000 mapping scale in both detail and precision. This data set can be used to provide context for finer-level maps or applications. Appropriate uses include: (1) Statewide biodiversity planning; (2) Regional and large area resource planning; (3) Coarse-filter evaluation of potential impacts or benefits of major projects/initiatives on biodiversity - such as utility or transportation corridors, wilderness proposals, open space or recreation proposals; (4) Environmental impact assessment for large projects such as military activities; (5) Education at all levels for both students and citizens; (6) Estimation of potential economic impacts from loss of biological resource based activities; (7) Determining relative amounts of management responsibility for specific biological resources among land stewards to facilitate cooperative management and planning; (8) Basic research on regional distributions of plants and animals and to help target both specific species and geographic areas for needed research. Inappropriate uses of this data include: (1) Generating specific measurements from the data finer than the nearest thousand hectares; (2) Establishing exact boundaries for regulation or acquisition; (3) Establishing definite presence or absence of any element; (4) Determining abundance, health, or condition of any element; (5) Establishing a measure of accuracy of any other data by comparison with this data set; (6) Combining this data with any other data finer than 1:100,000 scale for analysis; (7) Use of this data to map small areas (less than thousands of hectares) typically requiring mapping resolution at 1:24,000 scale and using aerial photographs or ground surveys; (8) Altering the data in any way and redistributing it as a GAP product.
Point_of_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization:
United States Geological Survey, Biological Resource Division's, National Wetlands Research Center
Contact_Person: Mr. Steve Hartley or Calvin "Pat" O'Neil
Contact_Position: Geographer(s) or Principle Investigators
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing and Physical Address
Address: 700 Cajundome Blvd
City: Lafayette
State_or_Province: Louisiana
Postal_Code: 70506
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 337-266-8543
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 337-266-8616
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: steve_hartley@usgs.gov or pat_oneil@usgs.gov

Data_Set_Credit:
The National Wetlands Research Center would like to acknowledge the following for their participation in the development of this data set: US Forest Service, US Army Corps of Engineers-New Orleans, Environmental Protection Agency, Natural Resource Conservation Service, National Marine Fisheries Service, US Fish and Wildlife Service, US Geological Survey, Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries, Louisiana Department of Natural Resources, Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality, Barataria/Terrebonne National Estuary Program, The Nature Conservancy, Northeast Louisiana University, Northwestern State University, University of Southwestern Louisiana, Louisiana State University of Shreveport, and Tulane University Medical Center.
Native_Data_Set_Environment:
The computer operating system platform was UNIX. UNIX software citation, specifically, processing and data development phases used an installed UNIX software package of ERDAS version 7.5. All Gap coverages are stored in ARC/INFO format and map layouts were created in Arcview 3.1. Classification of the TM imagery was conducted in ERDAS version 7.5.


Data_Quality_Information:
Attribute_Accuracy:
Attribute_Accuracy_Report:
Major constraints in collecting accuracy data for the LA-GAP project included, but not limited to, available field work, available personnel, money, and of course permission problems. The LA-GAP project used data from several sources and agencies to overcome these limitations. The data were collected by field observations, and through the use of a helicopter. There was no systematic means of sampling the land cover since the ground truth data were collected by different individuals and verifying land cover types cannot always be reliably done. Sources of assessment data included 2360 sites from the Louisiana Breeding Bird Survey (BBS), 7335 sites from the Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries (LDWF) Vegetation Survey, 2907 sites from the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS)/National Resources Inventory (NRI) Survey, 1081 sites from the National Wetlands Research Center (NWRC)/National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) Survey, 844 sites from Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ), 800 sites from the NWRC/LA-GAP Survey, and 186 sites from Tulane University Medical Center/Entergy Spatial Analysis Research Laboratory for total of 15,513 sites. The LA-GAP project collected accuracy assessment data from the winter of 1994 to the winter of 1997. Survey hardware, mapping and data collection methods during this time changed from using a Trimble Basic GPS unit to a Precision Lightweight GPS Receiver (PLGR), from making maps to bring into the field a laptop display and from tabulating data on a survey form to a Microsoft Access form. The methodology was to visit key landscape areas through out the state and sample locations where public access was allowed (i.e., roadside views, parks, national forests, wildlife management areas, wildlife refuges, etc.) To ensure a higher degree of accuracy, 1995 1:65,000 color infrared aerial photography was utilized in both image classification and field observations. For the lower third of the state, National Wetland Inventory data were used for further refinement of attributes. The source of this data was 1988 1:65,000 color infrared aerial photography. Accuracy results for the LA-GAP land use/land cover data were tested using several methods. Methods used varied from pixel level assessment to majority filters and homogeneous regions. Accuracy based on pixel level comparisons for Anderson Level I, Anderson Level II, and the LA-GAP land use/land cover classification scheme was 82%, 84%, and 74%, respectively. Using a 3X3 cell majority filter for an accuracy method essentially had no effect on the outcome of the overall accuracy. The last method used to conduct the assessment was to select only those reference points that fell within a homogeneous 3X3 filter window. This procedure reduced the total sample size down from the original 15,509 reference points to 10,206 locations. Using this methodology increased the overall accuracy of all levels. Anderson Level I was increased to 92%, followed by Level II to 90%, and the LA-GAP classification increased to 84% from the original 74%. The LA-GAP project has provided the map users, of this product, with three different accuracy methods to allow the users the choice of how they will use and interpret the data. For this project, the stated overall map accuracy will be 84%.
Logical_Consistency_Report: Each pixel studied in this project has its own unique value.
Completeness_Report:
In Louisiana the use of 30 meter resolution TM imagery was not suitable for mapping land use/land cover to the Alliance level. TM allows for generalization, therefore in LA, mapping was done to a modified Formation level. In the State of Louisiana there is very little change in elevation, therefore many of the formations occur throughout the State. Processing of digital data follows conventions and standard methodologies for the time period and within limitations of available workstation equipment at the date of data development.
Positional_Accuracy:
Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy:
Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy_Report:
Does not apply for this data's scale or purpose. Please refer to the Use Constraints section for the appropriate and inappropriate uses of this data.
Vertical_Positional_Accuracy:
Vertical_Positional_Accuracy_Report: Not applicable
Lineage:
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Earth Observation Satellite Company (EOSAT)
Publication_Date: 19930101
Title: 1993 Landsat TM Color Raster Imagery
Edition: 1993
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: Remote-Sensing Image
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Lanham, MD
Publisher: Earth Observation Satellite Company
Source_Scale_Denominator: 25 meter cell resolution
Type_of_Source_Media: Digital database file
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date: 19930101
Source_Currentness_Reference: Date of imagery source data
Source_Citation_Abbreviation: EOSAT
Source_Contribution:
The remotely sensed imagery was the foundation for the determination of land use/land cover types.
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS)
Publication_Date: 19880101
Title: National Wetlands Inventory Maps (Digital)
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: Map
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: St. Petersburg, Florida, USA
Publisher:
United States Fish and Wildlife Service's National Wetlands Inventory
Source_Scale_Denominator: 24,000
Type_of_Source_Media: Digital database file
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date: 19880101
Source_Currentness_Reference: Date of photography source data
Source_Citation_Abbreviation: NWI
Source_Contribution:
Provided habitat information for development of classification scheme in the lower third of the state of Louisiana (considered as the coastal region of Louisiana).
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), United States.
Publication_Date: 19950101
Title: NASA Color Infrared Aerial Photography
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: Remote Sensing Image
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Ames, CA
Publisher: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
Source_Scale_Denominator: 65,000
Type_of_Source_Media: Stable-based Material
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date: 1995
Source_Currentness_Reference: Date of photography
Source_Citation_Abbreviation: NASA
Source_Contribution:
Source of data refinement of the visual interpretation of the TM data.
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Louisiana Natural Heritage Program, USGS's National Wetlands Research Center, the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation, the Barataria-Terrebonne National Estuary Program, and the Nature Conservancy of Louisiana.
Publication_Date: 19980101
Title: Louisiana Breeding Bird Atlas
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: Atlas
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Lafayette, LA
Publisher: USGS's National Wetlands Research Center
Type_of_Source_Media: Digital Database file
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 19940101
Ending_Date: 19960101
Source_Currentness_Reference: Date of survey activity
Source_Citation_Abbreviation: BBS
Source_Contribution: Source of data refinement
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: USDA, National Resource Conservation Service
Publication_Date: 1992
Title: National Resource Inventory
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: Map
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Fort Worth, TX
Publisher: USDA National Cartography and Geospatial Center
Type_of_Source_Media: Digital database file
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date: 19920101
Source_Currentness_Reference: Source of data acquisition
Source_Citation_Abbreviation: NRI
Source_Contribution: Source of data refinement
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries
Publication_Date: 19990101
Title: LADWF Vegetation Survey
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: Map
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Lafayette, LA
Publisher:
Louisiana Dept. of Wildlife and Fisheries, Fur and Refuge Division, and USGS's National Wetlands Research Center
Type_of_Source_Media: Digital Database file
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date: 19970601
Source_Currentness_Reference: Source of data acquisition
Source_Citation_Abbreviation: LADWF
Source_Contribution: Source of data refinement

Process_Step:
Process_Description:
The Louisiana GAP project used 1992 and 1993 Landsat 5 TM imagery delivered by the USGS EROS Data Center (EDC). Ten TM scenes were needed to provide complete coverage of the state. These digital image scenes were purchased early through a cooperative agreement between several agencies. The LA-GAP project used an unsupervised classification for clustering the satellite imagery. Software used to accomplish this task was ERDAS version 7.5. It was decided that Band 3 (visible red), Band 4 (near infrared), and Band 5 (mid-infrared) were the best band combinations when classifying and 75 clusters would be sufficient to analyze the data. The state was grided into 332 900X900 pixel blocks. To help the image analyst to interpret the clusters and to ensure a higher degree of accuracy, 1995 1:65,000, color infrared aerial photography was utilized in the image classification process. The US Fish and Wildlife Service's NWI maps (containing wetlands and upland attributes) were used to classify the gulf coastal parishes of the state. The NWI map classification was generalized and incorporated into the Landsat TM land cover classification scheme. Two field verification strategies associated with classifying land cover with Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery were utilized. The first effort is a selective systematic reconnaissance of key areas statewide that represent important Landsat image signatures portraying the landscape. The selected key areas and resulting field visits were used to develop and produce the satellite land cover classification scheme and map for the state. After the Landsat land cover classification map was completed, the second field verification activity involved a statewide accuracy strategy, assessment and survey to indicate the confidence level of the Landsat land cover classification. The vegetation was then categorized according to a modified classification scheme originally developed by UNESCO. Vegetation was categorized into groupings based on similarities in structural appearance at the higher, coarser levels, and on floristic composition at the lower, finer levels.
Process_Date: 19940901 - 19990101


Spatial_Data_Organization_Information:
Indirect_Spatial_Reference: The State of Louisiana
Direct_Spatial_Reference_Method: Raster


Spatial_Reference_Information:
Horizontal_Coordinate_System_Definition:
Planar:
Grid_Coordinate_System:
Grid_Coordinate_System_Name: Universal Transverse Mercator
Universal_Transverse_Mercator:
UTM_Zone_Number: 15
Transverse_Mercator:
Longitude_of_Central_Meridian: 0.9996
Latitude_of_Projection_Origin: -87.0
False_Easting: 500,000
False_Northing: 0.0
Scale_Factor_at_Central_Meridian: .9996
Planar_Coordinate_Information:
Planar_Coordinate_Encoding_Method: Coordinate Pair
Coordinate_Representation:
Abscissa_Resolution: .61
Ordinate_Resolution: .61
Planar_Distance_Units: Meters
Geodetic_Model:
Horizontal_Datum_Name: Nad27 (North American Datum 1927)
Ellipsoid_Name: Clarke 1866
Semi-major_Axis: 6378206.4
Denominator_of_Flattening_Ratio: 249.98


Entity_and_Attribute_Information:
Overview_Description:
Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
The data set consists of raster data for the State of Louisiana Gap project. The 30 meter resolution imagery is classified according to a scheme developed by the Louisiana Natural Heritage Program (the LA-GAP classification is an aggregate version of another classification scheme), and each pixel has an unique value. The data represents the land use/land cover types for the state, and includes such classifications as fresh marsh, intermediate marsh, brackish marsh, saline marsh, wetland forest-deciduous, wetland forest-evergreen, wetland forest-mixed, upland forest-deciduous, upland forest-evergreen, upland forest-mixed, dense pine thicket, wetland scrub/shrub (s/s) deciduous, wetland s/s evergreen, wetland s/s mixed, upland s/s deciduous, upland s/s evergreen, upland s/s mixed, agricultural-cropland-grassland, vegetated urban, non-vegetated urban, wetland barren, upland barren, water.
Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation:
Vegetation Classification Scheme, derived from a classification scheme created by Latimore Smith, Ecologist, the Louisiana Natural Heritage Program (Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries)


Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization:
United States Geological Survey, Biological Research Division's National Wetlands Research Center
Contact_Person: Mr. Steve Hartley or Calvin "Pat" O'Neil
Contact_Position: Geographer(s) or Principle Investigators
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing Address
Address: 700 Cajundome Blvd
City: Lafayette
State_or_Province: LA
Postal_Code: 70506
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 337 266-8543
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 337 266-8616
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: steve_hartley@usgs.gov
Hours_of_Service:
8 AM to 4 PM CST for phone calls. Any hours for e-mail or fax transmittal.
Resource_Description: The Landcover Classification for the Louisiana GAP Project
Distribution_Liability:
The distributor shall not be liable for improper or incorrect use of this data, based on the description of appropriate/inappropriate uses described in this metadata document. It is strongly recommended that this data is directly acquired from the distributor described above or from another USGS Biological Resource Division server and not indirectly through other sources which may have changed the data in some way. The distributor makes no claims as to the data's suitability for other purposes. These data are not legal documents and are not to be used as such. Users should be aware that comparison with other data sets for the same area from other time periods may be inaccurate due to inconsistencies resulting from changes in digital conversions and mapping conventions over time. See the Access Constraints section for the NWRC Standard Data Liability Disclaimer.
Standard_Order_Process:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: None
Format_Version_Number: None
File_Decompression_Technique: None
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name: <http://sdms.nwrc.gov>
Fees: None, if available on-line
Custom_Order_Process: Not available


Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Date: 980827
Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Helena Schaefer
Contact_Organization: USGS's National Wetlands Research Center
Contact_Position: Geographer, serving as spatial data request contact for NWRC
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing Address
Address: 700 Cajundome Blvd
City: Lafayette
State_or_Province: Louisiana
Postal_Code: 70506
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 337 266-8696
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 337 266-8616
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: helena_schaefer@usgs.gov
Hours_of_Service:
8 AM to 4 PM CST for phone calls. Any hours for e-mail or fax transmittal.
Metadata_Standard_Name:
Draft Content Standard for National Biological Information Infrastructure Metadata, National Biological Service
Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998
Metadata_Access_Constraints: None
Metadata_Use_Constraints: None

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